Open Standards: The Building Blocks for the IoT

Posted on January 21st, 2015

The Internet of Things represents an opportunity for humanity to make better choices based on interconnections that improve the quality of our lives and society as a whole. In order for this opportunity to come to fruition, there are five critical requirements that must come to fruition.
Image: Shutterstock, Anna Bardocz

Oleg Logvinov, Director of Market Development at STMicroelectronics and current Chair of the IEEE P2413 Standard for an Architectural Framework for the Internet of Things Working Group, contributed this article to Electronic Design Magazine.

In reference to the IoT, Logvinov says, “At it’s heart, it is the disruptive convergence of technology, telecommunications, data, and people. It is the humanization of technology, the melding of disparate elements and systems into a unified platform, allowing us to connect more deeply with one another and the world around us.”

He argues that the IoT represents an opportunity for humanity to “make better choices based on these interconnections, improving the quality of not only our own lives, but society as a whole.”

In the article, Logvinov outlines five critical requirements for the success of IoT technology and devices, as summarized below:

  1. Smarter power consumption. The devices that fuel the IoT will require power. By Cisco Systems’ estimate, there will be 50 billion IoT-connected devices by 2020. How will all of these devices be powered? Logvinov comments that, “Even if those 50 billion things consumed only 10 mW each, that still adds up to needing more than 500 MW just to power the IoT of tomorrow.”
  2. Improved storage and management of data. The sheer data management needs of the IoT will be mind blowing, given the magnitude of devices used and the data received and calculated. As Logvinov notes with regards to power consumption, “With such a staggering demand for power, every possible measure must be taken to minimize consumption and maximize energy efficiency.” The same is true for the storage and management of the data that the IoT will create. MCU’s, discussed below under item four, will play a critical role in this.
  3. Safeguards for privacy and security. Evans Data Corp’s research shows that over 17% of the world’s software developers have turned their attention to the IoT, and another 23% are expected to follow within six months. The exponential proliferation of networked devices create exponentially prolific opportunities for security risk. As the IoT grows, the need for scalable identity management, privacy and security frameworks that can keep up with the rapid pace of development is desperately needed.
  4. High Performance Microcontrollers (MCU’s). According to Logvinov, if sensors and actuators can be likened to the nervous system for the IoT, MCUs are the brains behind it. Sensors are a small component with a large role to play in detecting, gathering and measuring data based on inputs and environment. “MCUs are one of the most important elements in sustaining the continued advance and expansion of the IoT. With their ability to monitor, analyze, and react to environmental data, today’s generation of MCUs bring much needed intelligence to the smart devices and systems that form the IoT. MCUs deliver meaningful and predictive analytics and data reduction. They also enable the management of data exposure through the application and maintenance of data models in support of applicable interaction models, all while minimizing power consumption and cost.” Along with other components critical to the IoT, MCUs, sensors, and actuators will need to be developed at a pace that matches the growth of IoT.
  5. Communication and Interoperability. The devices that fuel the IoT must be able to communicate with each other independently and without the need for human intervention. The intricacy of establishing and managing “machine-to-machine” (M2M) communication, as it pertains to the IoT is nearly indescribable, and the power that will be required to fuel this communication will be significant. It is seemingly impossible to think of a single communication technology that can support each and every case and operate in all possible environments. Logvinov believes, that “most likely, the IoT will leverage many communication technologies with the goal of delivering an ‘always on’ experience while minimizing the power consumed by the IoT.”

It has been predicted that 50 billion devices will be networked by 2020. However, some experts argue the estimate is on the low side.  Logvinov asserts that open standards will be critical to support the development areas above — serving as building blocks for the foundation of the IoT and speeding innovation.

Logvinov points to a number of standardization projects that have been launched recently, including IEEE’s own IEEE P2413, “IEEE Standard for an Architectural Framework for the Internet of Things (IoT).” The IEEE P2413 project is working to develop a common core of open standards that include architectural frameworks, reference models, and data-abstraction blueprints to enable clearly defined relationships among the IoTs numerous verticals. Their hope is to minimize industry and vertical market fragmentation, improve interoperability, and allow for the building of IoT ecosystems that successfully and effectively leverage the power of all “things.”

What are your suggestions for how to solve for these key components of the IoT? Are there any components you would add to this list? Let us know in the comments below!

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Google’s Vint Cerf Advocates for an Open Internet

Posted on January 7th, 2015

Google’s Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist, Vinton G. Cerf, recently wrote an article advocating for an open internet. An open internet can threaten the concept of sovereign national borders, making it critical to protect the free and open internet by taking responsibility now to develop governance methods that incorporate the principles of openness.
Image: Shutterstock, soliman design

The potential of the internet continues to be realized as a direct result of the principles of openness that governed its very inception and early development. The idea that any person can have access to the free exchange of information, ideas, and data has created the connectivity framework that enables today’s rich innovative culture. However, the openness many people in the world enjoy today is not enjoyed unilaterally, and even in “free” nations, open internet is not a long-term guarantee.

Google’s Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist, Vinton G. Cerf, recently authored an article in WIRED Magazine called “How to Save the Net: Keep it Open.” In the article, Cerf asserts “the premise of openness is at risk—because it threatens the very concept of sovereign national borders that was established in 1648 by the Treaty of Westphalia.” In short, the treaty reinforces the rights of nations to restrict and regulate the open internet.

Many governments are discussing, or have already implemented, restricted access and limit select types of content. China and other nations tightly control public access to the web. In the wake of NSA revelations, some nations are examining ways to create their own, secure national internets, including Iran. However, geopolitical concerns aren’t the only threat to open access; the influence of political and trade concerns can be equally powerful, as Cerf points out:

“For example, new top-level domain names like .vin and .wine have led to major complaints by France, Spain, and Portugal over who may properly register second-level domain names such as champagne,” Cerf shared in his article with Wired. “If internet governance policy gets mixed up with trade policy, one might see attempts to exchange internet openness for some adjustment in a tariff barrier or other political accommodation. Such disputes come and go, but if they produce uncertainty about connectivity, they could erode motivation for investing in internet businesses and infrastructure.”

According to Cerf, it’s critical to protect the free and open internet by taking responsibility now to develop governance methods that incorporate the principles of openness. The U.S. has shown support for this movement by offering to entrust oversight and policy development to Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), who, Cerf says is “a private-sector, nonprofit, multi-stakeholder organization, which was originally established in 1998 for precisely this purpose.” Such a move clearly advocates for the value to society of maintaining an open and accessible internet. At the very least, Cerf hopes that this would set an example for other stakeholders to follow, moving forward.

The OpenStand Principles also celebrate a commitment to openness, and as we continue to advocate for protecting Internet governance, we hope you’ll stand with us for an open future.

Posted in News

OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement Standards Put Geo-Locational Data Within Reach

Posted on December 11th, 2014

Today billions of sensors are enabled by location-specific sensors that transmit geo-tagged information to transmit data. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is a non-profit standards organization dedicated to building a Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards framework.

Image: Shutterstock, hkeita

Today there are billions of sensors collecting and transmitting data in the consumer and industrial world, enabled by location-specific sensors that transmit geo-tagged information. These sensors and sensor networks have been created by a variety of factors and are used in a variety of ways, from enabling GPS functionality to tracking location of specific items like packages, to enabling surveillance and defense.

There are an unlimited number of use cases where location-based data plays a critical role in the lives of individuals, industries and governments. Looking to the future, geo-locational data will prove to be critical to the performance of many smart technologies, from smart homes that adjust temperature based on the location and preferences of a user, and adjust security preferences accordingly, to smart devices that sense our location and that “adapt” to adjust settings and deliver more contextually relevant information to us based on our personal preferences.

Up until the recent past, most sensor networks were built using proprietary code that restricted and limited the sharing of collected information. This restricted the capture and use of geo-locational information. To share data with others, the sensor resources and applications had to be adapted manually, and the associated APIs that were developed had to be constantly managed and updated to ensure ongoing functionality.

To pave the way for the future use of this data, an open infrastructure was required: one that would will open up data sharing, enable proper controls, accommodate different models of data use and help manage the increased volume of data that will be transmitted as a result.

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is a non-profit standards organization dedicated to building a Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards framework. A Sensor Web is a complex network of web-enabled sensors that collect data that can be discovered and accessed using standardized protocols and service interfaces. Through its efforts, the OGC hopes to standardize sensor communication in a manner that fuels the open communication and interoperability of data –  and it’s already on its way.

According to the OGC, they “took on the task of standardizing sensor communication because every sensor, whether in situ (such as a rain gauge) or remote (such as an Earth imaging device), has a location, and the location of a sensor is highly significant for many applications. The resulting suite of SWE standards – now being widely implemented around the world – enable developers to make all types of networked sensors, transducers and sensor data repositories discoverable, accessible and useable via the Web or other networks.”

Denise McKenzie, Executive Director, Communications and Outreach for OGC wrote, “SWE is the only open, international standards suite that provides a comprehensive platform for publishing, discovering, assessing, accessing and using sensors and sensor systems of all kinds. The SWE standards are open, with the standards documents freely available on the OGC website. Also, the consensus process in which SWE standards are created and maintained is open to all who want to participate, and the process guards against future intellectual property claims that would compromise the standards’ openness.”

SWE standards are important because they enable broad access to sensor-driven data for use by anyone. According to McKenzie, “SWE provides a coherent standards infrastructure to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way.”  OGC standards are downloadable at no charge, for anyone.

SWE has been received with great enthusiasm by a broad array of organizations and are in use in hundreds of applications, from mobile to enterprise. Some of the notable organizations which have already adopted and implemented SWE include:

  • Unites States Government Department of Defense/Intelligence Community
  • NASA SensorWeb
  • US National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Integrated Oceans Observing System (IOOSIOOS)
  • European Space Agency (ESA) SPS satellite tasking
  • European Sensor Web Infrastructure Management (SWIMA) – monitoring water quality in river catchments

By enabling the open sharing of sensor data, SWE standards reduce development overhead, speed innovation, fuel communication and interoperability. These standards not only model the values that OpenStand represents, they help put the promise of the Internet of Things within reach.

What do you think about SWE? What standards would you like to see the SWE community develop, if they haven’t been created already?   Share your thoughts as a comment.

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Eclipsing the IoT with Open Source and Open Internet Standards

Posted on December 3rd, 2014

With the Internet of Things (IoT) causing so many devices to sync together across various technologies and platforms, there is now a greater need than ever for open source technology and open standard to speed innovation, fuel interoperability, drive global development and fuel market adoption of new technology.

Image: Shutterstock,  PlusONE

From cars that provide Wi-Fi and read text messages aloud to smart thermometers and sensor-driven devices that help individuals better implement a healthy lifestyle, the world ablaze and singing the promises of the Internet of Things (IoT).  With so many devices syncing together across various technologies and platforms, there is now a greater need than ever for standards and frameworks that help the world manage the rivers of data flowing from individual people and objects.  Never before has open source technology and open standards been more necessary to speed innovation, fuel interoperability, drive global development and fuel market adoption of new technology.

According to Ian Skerret, VP of Marketing for the Eclipse Foundation, “If you look at the Internet today, it’s run on open source. Linux, Apache and open standards like HTTP are the building blocks. If we’re really going to get an Internet of Things, we need a set of core building blocks that anyone can use to develop commercial or internal solutions.”

Eclipse IoT, a community founded by the Eclipse Foundation, is dedicated to developing establish and open source IoT/M2M development platform that can be used by anyone. Developing solutions and labels related to IoT is challenging because the of the pervasive and ever changing nature of IoT.  Eclipse IoT often uses the “IoT/M2M” nomenclature because machine-to-machine communication represents an origination point for the concept of IoT.

“To put together an IoT solution today, you need people who understand gateways and networks, but also enterprise systems, data analytics, integration with ERP or CRM systems,” Skerret told John K. Waters of the WatersWorks blog,  “There’s some daunting complexity here, but we know that when you create frameworks and abstraction levels in software, it becomes much easier to put together these types of solutions.”

Currently, Eclipse IoT is working on 15 projects dedicated to making the IoT simpler. One project is the Paho Project, which provides scalable, open-source client implementations of open and standard messaging protocols aimed at new, existing, and emerging applications for M2m and IoT. Another project is their community-driven SmartHome project, which provides a flexible framework for the Smart Home. Eclipse SCADA is already being used 24/7 in several installations around the world as a set of tools that can be combined in many different ways. It provides development libraries, interface applications, mass configuration tools, front-end and back-end applications.

The Eclipse IoT leadership have not yet formally endorsed the OpenStand Principles. However, it’s clear these principles are at work in fueling a spirit of open innovation, as Eclipse IoT’s helps create open and accessible building blocks for the future.

Posted in News

Standards for an Open Internet of Things

Posted on November 25th, 2014

For the Internet of Things to continue, Open Standards are needed. The two main pillars of research that are addressing these challenges of connectivity which plague the Internet of Things (IoT) are proximal connectivity and wireless wide area connectivity. Image: Shutterstock, Scott Bedford

The frenetic activity, speculation, discussion and development that surrounds the Internet of Things (IoT) makes it difficult to comprehend the future vision, players, market and realities of this unfolding space. The engagement and business models will only become actionable and attainable when a consensus is developed around best practices and frameworks that will support IoT.

Pravin Kulange, Co-Founder at Adeptus Technology Consulting, proposes that the real value for end users of the IoT is developing a unifying standard to connect the many silos that currently exist for handling information. According to Kulange, the appropriate solution will require “a specification, a middleware product or some OS features, but it has to be open for everybody.” Kulange lists other key factors that are necessary for driving mass adoption of the standard, including low cost and energy efficient hardware, infrastructure in the form of cloud and big data technologies, pervasive wireless networks, and mobile devices.

In part because of the ongoing progress in infrastructure, Kulange points out that “this challenge also offers a big opportunity for those who are willing to bridge the gap.” In his recent article, Need of Standards in the Internet of Things, Kulange highlights the two main pillars of research that are addressing these challenges of connectivity:

  1. Proximal Connectivity, related to geographic localities and short range protocols, is an area of focus by Google’s Thread protocol, Qualcomm and The Linux Foundation’s AllSeen Alliance, Intel’s Open Interconnect Consortium, as well as 6LoWPAN, IEEE IoT, and IIC.
  1. Wireless Wide Area Connectivity is concerned with longer-range and mobile technologies, and is a primary focus of telecommunications players like the ITUETSI, and China Mobile, which is launching many M2M projects in anticipation of IoT. Kulange also indicates some emerging technology in this field around energy development cost and quality.

While Kulange asserts that we’ll just have to wait until the development of these standards start to reveal clear winners, the challenge of creating the most valuable standard represents a significant, global participation opportunity.

As the standards world seeks to build the frameworks and standards that will best support IoT, adherence to the OpenStand Principles will be critical. The five fundamental principles of standards development, including due process, broad consensus, transparency, balance and accessibility, will help ensure standards supporting the IoT benefit humanity. Join us in supporting these principles by adding your name to a global list of OpenStand supporters. Thank you for your support!

Posted in News

OpenStand, the IoT and Connected Life: Kantara Initiative

Posted on November 19th, 2014

As the Internet of Things (IoT) bridges the gap between our virtual and digital worlds, personal data and security becomes a challenge. By leveraging the OpenStand Principles, Kantara members seek to leverage open standards to develop verifiable trusted solutions that respect users, serve society, and grow markets.

The Intersection of Things and Identity

As modern ICT infrastructure, networked devices and sensors combine to form the framework for the Internet of Things (IoT), the vital lifeblood that flows through IoT is personal and object-related data. The secure, precise and reliable management of the data shared between connected machines, objects and humans is critical to the future.  It is only when the proper data, identity, security and privacy frameworks are established that the true and positive potential of a technology-enabled, connected life for global citizens can be realized.

The IoT promises to bridge the gap between our virtual and digital worlds, creating a seamless connected experience for people. However, the quality of this future, “connected life” depends on our ability to develop new and improved, innovative and trust-based personal identity management solutions.  The complexities of Identity Management practices and solution limitations make it challenging for global inter-disciplinary communities to harmonize their identity and security practices and policies, online and offline.

The technology services and frameworks that connect businesses, consumers, governments and people are rapidly evolving.  Early Identity Management (IdM) technology services focused on security and access management – typically within organizational or national perimeters. However, the scope of these solutions is limited when taken into consideration against the increasingly complex and borderless nature of modern data sharing practices.

Personal Data and Security

As technology enables and expands our reach, we find ourselves challenged to comprehend the security and privacy implications of our modern human interactions.  The amount of personal data being generated has exponentially increased, fueled by the proliferation, adoption, and use of mobile, wearable, and sensor-enabled devices.  These technologies gather sensitive personal data that can be highly useful and beneficial to individuals and enterprises alike.  However, when put into the wrong hands, the same data may also be used for harm.

For example, today, many wearable devices are equipped with sensors that can record an individual’s physical activity, from the number of steps taken to sleep quality, diet patterns, heart rate, blood sugar levels and more. When combined with other recorded data (E.g. time/date, geo-locational information) and transmitted, via networked connections that employ different levels of security, our personal data can power apps, drive social media updates and be readily shared with other people or entities for a variety of purposes.

From a positive perspective, this data can help individuals manage and improve their physical health, be readily shared with partners and caregivers, be utilized in aggregate to support medical research and leveraged in other beneficial ways.  Unfortunately, our personal data may also be used in ways that are less obvious and/or desirable. On the down side, personal data can be intercepted by others, leveraged or sold to advertisers or used algorithmically to identify behavioral patterns that may impact an individual in an unforeseen manner, such as being leveraged by an insurance company to justify a policy rate increase.

Without question, the global need for comprehensive systems that enable the management and governance of personal data and identity systems presents a new frontier for ideation and innovation.  Varying national and industry practices exist today with regard to data management, privacy and security.  However, as our devices, apps and connections proliferate; as our data is shared in unforeseen ways; and as we attempt to realize the promises of IoT and new technology, a harmonized, proactive approach for the comprehensive management of our personal data, identity and privacy is a critical necessity.

Developing Trust-Based Services

To help improve and accelerate adoption of relationship-based digital identity solutions that support and simplify our connected lives, Kantara Initiative is running two parallel activities:

The Identities of Things Discussion Group (IDoT) is working to map and more fully understand the landscape (players, activities, solutions, trends, etc.) that stand at the intersection of Identity management and IoT.  The group’s goal is to deliver recommendations for the development and adoption of best practices, and to conduct a gap analysis that will help inform communities about collaboration opportunities that support interoperability within specific areas of interest.

The Identity Relationship Management (IRM) Working Group is researching, analyzing and developing best practices (and may potentially recommend future standards development activities) related to the varying global technical and policy frameworks that currently govern the connections between humans, entities, and devices. In the near term, this group will deliver a report that explores the “Laws of Relationships – A Work in Progress.”

Participation in both groups is open to anyone. Additional information can be found here.

When Kantara members have secured a more complete picture of the identity and IoT landscape, along with the associated implications related to security, privacy and technology interoperability, collective focus will shift.  In the next phase, members will focus on working collaboratively, openly and transparently developing programs and solutions to drive innovation in the global Identity Management space. Ultimately, Kantara Initiative seeks to establish a trust-driven foundation comprised of identity services that streamline and support a globally connected society, while respecting individual rights and privileges, and enabling companies, industries, government and civil service organizations to better serve people through advanced, interoperable technologies.

Kantara and OpenStand

Kantara Initiative is a signatory for the OpenStand Principles, and embraces an open, transparent, multi-stakeholder community.  Kantara members include technology and policy professionals from industry, research, academia governments, civil society, and more.

The adoption of the OpenStand Principles will help drive the open development of a transparent, accessible environment that supports innovation, technology development, and deployment for the benefit of humanity. By leveraging the OpenStand Principles, Kantara members seek to leverage open standards to develop verifiable trusted solutions that respect users, serve society, and grow markets.

For more information on how to get involved, please click here.


Joni Brennan is a contributing advocate and is the Executive Director for the Kantara Initiative

Contributing Advocate
Joni Brennan,
Executive Director, Kantara Initiative

About Kantara Initiative
The Kantara Initiative is a non-profit organization that helps accelerate the identity services market by developing innovations and programs to support trusted on-line transactions. The organization is dedicated to identify, and develop innovative and “trust-based” solutions that support the Connected Life. By definition, trust-based solutions leverage open standards, enable proportional data sharing in a manner that respects users, and apply verifiable best practices. Kantara Members are working to openly assess, innovate and develop programs that will help ensure a more safe, seamless and streamlined connected experience.


Posted in News

How the Open Document Format (ODF) Standard Simplifies Document Sharing and Collaboration

Posted on November 12th, 2014



Electronic document sharing and collaboration can be a problematic activity today. File compatibility, formatting, version control and editing become a potential headache for anyone trying to collaboratively share documents. For example, a research paper might look fine in Apple’s Pages, but it may fail to open or display properly in Microsoft’s Word. Or a document created in Microsoft Excel can be difficult to open if the recipient is using Sheets by Google Drive. A viable solution to this problem is to utilize an open standard format.

According to Eric C. McCreath and Robert Edwards of Business IT, “The way forward to avoid any compatibility issues is open standard formats that any person or organisation can develop office applications for, whether these are Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) applications or proprietary ones. This levels the playing field and makes sharing office documents easier and less expensive.”

One open standard that is gaining recognition is the Open Document Format (ODF) which was introduced by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). OASIS is a not-for-profit global consortium, that endorses the open adoption of e-business standards.  OASIS key players include SunMicrosystems (now with Oracle) and IBM.  ODF documents can be recognized by their filename extensions, which include:

  • .odt and .fodt for word processing

  • .ods and .fods for spreadsheets

  • .odp and .fodp for presentations

  • .odg and .fodg for graphics

There are a variety of benefits associated with using ODF.  First, ODF has been approved by both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commision (IEC) as an international standard for office software. Second, the ODF format can be easily integrated with the following office software applications:

  • StarOffice

  • Microsoft Office since 2008

  • LibreOffice

  • Google Docs

*Note: Conflicting information is available on ODF integration with Google Docs.  While the original article indicates support, along with Wikipedia,  this article says “NO”, and this support thread indicates there is some integration.text

This means that any document that has been created as an ODF in any of these applications can be shared and opened in any other application and it will appear and act just as the owner intended it to. The ODF specification is available at no cost from OASIS, so it can be read and implemented for free.

As mentioned earlier, various international governments and organizations have adopted ODF as their format for creating and sharing documents. The UK’s adoption of ODF and the Australian government’s work towards using ODF can provide helpful insight into the benefits of ODF.

Do you think we will see a movement of more governments and international organizations moving towards ODF? What do you think the benefits will be? Is there a downside to using ODF? We’d love to hear your thoughts.


Posted in News

Interview with OpenStand Advocate Tim Berners-Lee: The Internet Turns 25

Posted on November 5th, 2014

From the beginning, the Internet was built on a set of open development principles, that are now recognized as the OpenStand Principles. As the Internet turns 25 this year, Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, sat down to reflect back on the first days of its existence. In the below video, he discusses how far web information has come, and how much more ground there is left to cover.

Video highlights:

  • From an early age, Berners-Lee understood the difference between looking at systems from both a microscopic level and a macroscopic level. This difference played a critical role in the development of the Internet. He not only took into consideration how the it would function, by sending information from one computer to another, but how the entire system would scale and interconnect.
  • Growing up, Berners-Lee’s parents were involved in the growth of computer programming and told him that what you do with a computer is only limited by your imagination. Berners-Lee highlighted this as the challenge for today: To keep imagining and creating. The challenge didn’t end with the creation of the Internet; it has only just begun. The framework built by Berners-Lee laid the foundation for layers and layers of applications and use cases.
  • The early creators of the Internet were not out to turn the work into a dedicated career. They programmed out of their garages and basements in their spare time because they believed in the mission and the product. Berners-Lee said that if patents had been involved in the building of the Internet, nothing would have gotten accomplished because the innovators would have not have had open access to what their peers were working on, and therefore, would not have been able to build off of it. The Internet was built on the idea that access to information should be royalty free and open — and should remain that way.
  • Berners-Lee shares his thoughts about access to the Internet and notes that information is being discussed on a global scale in countries whose governments censor information. Berners-Lee remarks that ending censorship will not be an overnight process, but he can see progress that has been made to remove barriers to information exchange, as governments realize that access to information for all can greatly benefit their economy.

OpenStand is honored to carry the open development torch from Tim Berners-Lee, as well as with the W3C as an Affirming Partner of the OpenStand Principles. The Internet has seen exponential growth in the past 25 years and, as it is kept open, can only continue to grow for the benefit of humanity.

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