Common Unix Standards for Web Get Supported by REST, JSON

Posted on May 25th, 2016

Common Unix Standards for Web Get Supported by REST, JSON

Image: Shutterstock

In the realm of operating systems, perhaps the most storied OS is the Unix family. Originally developed by Bell Labs in the 1970s, Unix became the foundation upon which the Internet was built.  As a result, the Internet was designed with standards and technologies that behaved in a Unix-like fashion. This usually meant communication protocols that sent strings of text through network nodes, which were received by open sockets and parsed to extract data and commands. While Unix proved to be a robust platform for development, it also presented some security challenges and proved to be susceptible to error.

Today, engineers have developed safer, more elegant protocols for information transmission including REST APIs and the JSON data format standard.  These were predominantly developed and implemented by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an OpenStand Affirming Partner.  Today, REST and JSON are being applied to existing Internet standards to improve those standards, to improve performance and security as we move into an Internet of Things (IoT) era.  According to tech blogger Larry Seltzer, “The oldest REST standard appears to be RFC 6690: Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format, dated August 2012. It defines the response format from the server for resource enumeration but, somewhat oddly, does not use JSON for that format. RFC 7252: The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) from June 2014 is related to RFC 6690. Both are aimed at embedded applications once referred to as mobile to mobile, but now known far and wide as the Internet of Things.”

According to Selzer, the advantages of using REST APIs and JSON are obvious,  “Code to use the standards would conform to the conventions increasingly used by Internet programmers. It would look like just another API call, as opposed to the cornucopia of kludges one finds in Internet standards. Finally, structuring data in JSON facilitates bounds checking and other security best practices.”   He goes further to assert that in the future we will see REST APIs and JSON being used to update many other Internet standards.

Selzer points to the “Whois” standard for database queries as one standard in desperate need for a security overall.  Whois was standardized in the early days of the ARPANET as a way of identifying domains, people, and other resources on a network. Utilizing the Whois function is easy: simply open a socket to port 43 on the domain’s Whois server (note: you can also get this by doing a similar Whois query to for the top-level domain of the domain you’re looking for), then send the domain name to the socket, followed by \r\n (carriage return and line feed). What you get back is a long and basically unstructured string from which you can piece together the data you are searching for.

The ‘heir apparent’ to the Whois standard is called Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP), which has been defined in a collection of RFCs (Request For Comment) issued by IETF. The following RFCs comprise the definition of RDAP:

  • Networks by IP address
  • Autonomous system numbers by number
  • Reverse DNS metadata by domain
  • Nameservers by name
  • Registrars by name
  • Entities (such as contacts) by identifier
  • Servers are not required to support all of these functions.

Instead of a strong of data, JSON Queries return would JSON, such as this example:

“events” : [


  “eventAction” : “registration”,

  “eventActor” : “SOMEID-LUNARNIC”,

  “eventDate” : “1990-12-31T23:59:59Z”



  “eventAction” : “last changed”,

  “eventActor” : “OTHERID-LUNARNIC”,

  “eventDate” : “1991-12-31T23:59:59Z”

} ]

The transition from conventional Whois protocol to RDAP may result in resistance from more traditional, old-school developers who merely prefer the “old way” of doing things.   However, the development of REST and JSON versions of Internet standards remains an exciting ongoing opportunity to update and improve existing Internet protocols to improve performance and security.

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Telecom Giant Voices Concern Over Unstandardized IoT Growth

Posted on May 18th, 2016

Telecom Giant Voices Concern Over Unstandardized IoT Growth

Image: CBR

Without question, the Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to greatly accelerate the rate of web growth. While this is an exciting time for those interested in the trends and innovations of the technology industry, the IoT also presents significant challenges for developers of software security. In recent months, telecommunications giant Nokia publicly warned against the lack of interoperability standards in the IoT market and suggested that the lack of standards will stifle healthy industry growth.

Nokia’s forewarning about lax standards conformity in the IoT is perfectly understandable. Interoperability and standardization are critically important to creating the kind of connectivity and reliability that drive reliable service.  Nokia issued a public request for operators, research organizations, communications vendors and other key industry players to collaborate and ignite the development of comprehensive standards for the IoT: “[Nokia] said it wants the industry to explore business models, identify technology requirements and recommend a framework for standards for the end-to-end deployment of IoT in areas including connected mobility, smart city or public safety.”

As industry proceeds to address these issues, it is critically important for companies like Nokia to embrace open standards to support future interoperability, security, reliability, safety, and performance of innovative IoT enabled technologies.  The importance of open standards applies across sectors — not just to telecommunications.  As Brian Partridge, VP at 451 Research Mobility team, said: “Breaking the cycle of building proprietary IoT application silos in market after market will require more adoption of common standards and frameworks with open interfaces to achieve seamless interoperability.”

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Lack of Technology Standards Presents Significant Cost Issues in Travel Industry

Posted on May 11th, 2016

Lack of Technology Standards Presents Significant Cost Issues in Travel Industry
Image: Tnooz

Have you ever purchased an airline ticket or booked hotel reservations through an online travel agency (OTA)? The speed and convenience through which a business trip or vacation can be scheduled using online services were a welcome surprise for those of us who remember the hassle of arranging such accommodations in a pre-web era. Still, the convenience offered by OTA’s does not come without a cost.  As frequent patrons of OTAs can attest, it is not uncommon to find that OTA fees and surcharges that add up to a significant sum.

As obnoxious and capricious as additional charges may be for customer, they represent only half of the story. According to tech blogger and industry player Maksim Izmaylov, founder and CEO of, OTA fees are one of the most significant problems facing the travel industry today. From airlines to hotels and everything in between, OTA fees cut mercilessly into operating budgets. Whenever such systems are used, OTA fees are levied in two directions: to the end user and to the hospitality/transportation service being patronized. For European airline group Lufthansa, OTA costs have proven to be so painful that they have elected to place an additional €16 charge on every booking made through an OTA.

It may seem incredulous that alternative models to the OTA fee-driven model have not emerged, Izmaylov, asserts the reason the OTA model to go unchecked for decades is a technology-related one. The information systems used by most travel companies are largely outdated, silo-driven systems. There are extensive interoperability issues between their development environments. These issues have created the perfect environment for third party developers to set up shop and deliver data to end users that might otherwise be inaccessible or at the very least, inconvenient to obtain.  The lagging proprietary technology utilized by airlines and hospitality companies places them in an unenviable position of either rejecting the additional charges presented by OTAs and thereby cutting themselves off from the revenue such services drive, or using the OTAs to secure steady patronage, while getting hit with prohibitive fees.

The way forward, according to Izmaylov, is to promote the development of open technology standards for the world of travel. Imagine if airports, hotels, train lines, taxi services, and all other traveling accommodations committed to making their offerings available via a standardized, open API and open source code which developers could upon. In that environment, there would be no need for dozens of highly specialized mobile applications to get you from your home to the airport to the taxi to the hotel; it could all be delivered seamlessly in a single system. Because the technology would be standardized, there would be no way for market leaders (such as Expedia and Priceline) to set pricing and stifle innovation. The result: a more open and competitive playing field.

Fortunately, there are already market players who recognize this problem and are motivated to address it.  However, to make a truly open technological ecosystem function in the world of travel, Izmaylov suggested four things that would have to be present:

  1. Traveler Data Sharing Standards
  2. Realtime Hotel Availability API
  3. Flight Load API
  4. Trip ID (PNR for all parts of the trip)

The field is ripe for innovation and development and it is important that action be taken in the industry soon.  One group that is already working on open standards for the travel industry is the <LINK> OpenTravel Alliance</LINK>. While the work being done by this standards advocacy group is admirable, more action from the industry is needed. Beyond consortia / industry-driven standards, the industry and consumer advocacy groups must consider how to create open, accessible, technology standards to support global interoperability and benefits to humanity.  Truly open standards not only ensure all parties benefit, they enable competition and foster global market growth.

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Proposed Application of DRM in Popular Image Format May Present Concerns for Photo Sharers

Posted on May 4th, 2016

Proposed Application of DRM in Popular Image Format

Image: PCWorld

Copying, cutting, pasting, cropping, filtering, modifying, and sharing digital images is easier and arguably more popular than ever before. Many popular social media platforms have image editing capabilities built right in, so there’s little wonder as to why many web users take such features for granted.

The JPEG Committee, the primary organization behind establishing the coding standards of the enormously popular JPEG image format, is considering measures that may change how we approach image modifications.

For nearly a year, the JPEG Committee has been considering different coding models that would integrate digital rights management (DRM) schemas into the JPEG format. Followers of digital rights issues may be aware that an extension for DRM already exists for JPEG 2000 which is used primarily by health care providers. The new models being considered by the JPEG Committee will be much broader in their scope. With proper DRM application, the Committee claims, the unwanted sharing of personal images might be prevented and the kind of digital theft that affects professional image repositories could be curtailed.

Though the intentions behind these proposed changes are no doubt respectable, there are those who have voiced concern about the negative impact that such far-reaching DRM measures might have. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has argued that this sort of DRM application may prevent ethical usage of images through fair use and quotation. Furthermore, there are technical worries to consider, such as fraudulent DRM claims and interoperability issues between applications. For more casual image sharers, DRM overreach could prevent things like Internet memes or Pinterest-like bulletin boards from even existing.

The EFF has gone on to propose alternative measures that might be taken to discourage improper liberties from being taken on private photographs. Instead of “locking up entire image files,” with DRM, encrypted metadata might be used to sign images and track them. Users might then be allowed give trusted sources the ability to decrypt the metadata as they wish. Regarding the issue of image theft, EFF recommends that existing methods of determent (watermarking, steganography, etc.) continue to be developed and deployed.

There is little question that the JPEG Committee presents some legitimate concerns and possible solutions to address the ongoing problem of improper image usage.  At the same time, it may be too easy for DRM to be used too aggressively and to seriously damage industry growth and user experience. Given the checkered success of DRM in the music industry, groups like EFF do well to be wary about the impact it might have when applied to the web’s most popular image format.  With proper collaboration, it is hoped a solution may be found that protects digital rights while maintaining proper access and liberties for image use.

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Open Standards Finds Unlikely Sector of Growth in the World of Cinema

Posted on April 27th, 2016

International Union of Cinemas Calls for Open Standards in the Cinema Industry
Image: Shutterstock

Standards impact every industry and every sector. Posts on the OpenStand blog are dedicated to sharing case studies, stories and policies that influence development standards across sectors.  We’ve highlighted open standards for all sorts of technologies including mobile apps, car starters, baby monitors, and even interplanetary communication!  Another non-traditional area of development that’s been garnering more attention lately comes from the entertainment industry.

The International Union of Cinemas (UNIC) is a European trade association that boasts memberships in 36 countries. UNIC has participated in several keynote lectures in industry conferences discussing the swiftly changing technology landscape in cinema. Many UNIC members are significantly invested in an array of new and upcoming technologies that bring movie-going experiences to life.

Tracking all the latest innovations is an expensive and not always efficient proposition. Outside of the basic complications that sometimes frustrate the the acquisition and installation processes of new technology, many issues arise related to technical compatibility.  This threatens innovation in Cinema and can result in silo-driven innovation that fails to provide a global benefit.  Today, there are more sound and image data formats than ever before.  Cinema operators naturally would like to be able to show movies in the best possible quality, but keeping up with the countless players, projection systems, and support services can prove to be simply unfeasible.  Tech Blog Digital Cinema Today has published a list of the common problems impacting cinema innovation today:

  1.  Some major releases and accompanying trailers are not mixed in immersive sound, despite the technology being available in many cinemas around the world;
  1. Some films are only available in one specific Premium Large Format. Operators who have not invested in that specific format are then required to screen the film in a classic, smaller format on their otherwise large screens;
  1. Certain releases are only made available during the opening week in one specific image or sound format, limiting their release to cinemas equipped for those formats only;
  1. Some films are only made available in one specific non-standardized aspect ratio, therefore encouraging exhibitors to show a cropped film to their audience unless they can create a new macro in time.

The problems present in the entertainment industry are comparable with issues faced in other industries. The best path forward for cinema operators is open collaboration and cooperation. By working together to cultivate an environment in which technical innovation can be standardized and streamlined, cinema operators can ensure a more consistent, immersive theater experience for patrons. UNIC has been a vociferous advocate for moving the industry away from siloed, proprietary technology and into a more unified, collaborative, standardized development model.  This, UNIC maintains, would allow even small cinema operators to avail themselves of the greatest and most innovative media delivery systems.  The UNIC goal is to help pave the way to ensure that all films large and small — will be shown in the most ideal format.  As AR/VR and immersive programming enter the scene, this capability would seem to be growing in its importance.  As the industry, developers, cinemas and screeners collaborate to develop open technology standards for cinema, a more level playing field will be created, increasing competition, and more immersive, pleasing and unified movie-going experience will delight customers.

To learn more about Open Standards, which are based on the principles that contributed to the development of the Internet, please check out the OpenStand principles! If you enjoyed this post, please subscribe to the OpenStand blog!

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ISOC Promotes Collaborative Approach to Network Security at Mobile 360 Cape Town

Posted on April 13th, 2016

Leading Internet Advocacy Group Promotes Collaborative Approach to Network Security at Tech Conference in Cape Town

Image: Internet Society

Last October, the Internet Society (IS), a leading open standards advocacy group for Internet technologies (and OpenStand partner), presented its vision for a collaborative model of Internet security standards at Mobile 360, a telecommunications technology conference. The conference, held in Cape Town, South Africa, attracted a broad array of industry players; from buyers to users, to developers, to policy shapers, groups from both the private and governmental sectors gathered to discuss security standards in Internet-based telecommunication.

Security was the leading topic of the Mobile 360 conference, and ISOC’s primary contribution was to present a new model for collaborative security, based upon the simple premise that comprehensive Internet security is best created by people working together. The ISOC team made an eloquent pass at drawing out a collaborative utility that represents and how, at its core, the Internet is the ultimate venue for collaboration.

Still, ISOC went on to say, the very quality that makes the Internet an unparalleled tool for cooperation also makes it vulnerable to misuse. Because of its open and global nature, cyber miscreants can reach across borders and operate with relative freedom from reprisal as they ply their trade from anywhere in the world. Until quite recently, the predominant network security strategy has been to guard against specific internal and external threats. While this is obviously superior to having no security approach at all, the strategy has shown itself to be cumbersome and cost ineffective.

In response to the challenges of conventional security practices, there is a growing awareness in the tech industry that a reimagining of threat prevention may be necessary. Models that protect opportunities for economic and social prosperity should be prioritized over models wholly focused on preventing perceived harm.  The ISOC collaborative security approach starts from this premise and builds out on these five key elements, which are consistent with the OpenStand principles:

  • Fostering confidence and protecting opportunities: The objective of security is to foster confidence in the Internet.
  • Collective Responsibility: Internet participants share a responsibility towards the system as a whole.
  • Fundamental Properties and Values: Security solutions should be compatible with fundamental human rights and preserve the fundamental properties of the Internet, thus the Internet Invariants.
  • Evolution and Consensus: Effective security relies on agile evolutionary steps based on the expertise of a broad set of stakeholders.
  • Think Globally, act Locally: It is through voluntary bottom-up self-organization that the most impactful solutions are likely to be reached.
  • Network operators are major stakeholders that can contribute to the collaborative security.

Fortunately, for security managers interested in building more collaborative security models, there is already a published framework that identifies best practices in network operations. Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security (MANRS) defines four concrete actions that network operators should implement, including:

  • Prevention of propagation of incorrect routing information.
  • Prevent traffic with spoofed source IP addresses.
  • Facilitate global operational communication and coordination between network operators.
  • Facilitate validation of routing information on a global scale.
  • The Internet Society urges African network operators to subscribe to MANRS and contribute to making Internet routing more secure for the benefit of all.

Check out the ISOC Collaborative Security Approach here and be sure to leave your questions, comments and thoughts!

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Open Standards Are Key in Bringing the Internet of Things to the World of Agriculture

Posted on April 6th, 2016

openstand, openstandards, IoTImage: Techcrunch

One thing that many devices on the Internet of Things (IoT) have in common is that they do not have conventional user interfaces such as you’d expect to find on a personal computer or smartphone. Given the diverse form and function represented by IoT devices, interoperability and security have presented themselves as points of concern. For owners of IoT devices like the Apple TV or Amazon Echo, the frustration that comes with getting these devices to cooperate is no doubt a familiar annoyance. As more and more innovative and creative IoT applications are conceived, developed, and rushed to production, the dissonance and frustration of uncooperative devices threatens to worsen.

When considering the implications of IoT technology being implemented on such large scales as agricultural complexes, municipal utilities, and power plants, it is easy to see how the stakes can get quite high. For instance, in response to the agricultural and ecological state of emergency caused by the ongoing California drought, various smart technology developers have partnered with such recognizable companies as John Deere. By equipping John Deere tractors with networked sensors, analysts could calculate which areas would be optimal for planting so that farmers could plan accordingly. Other instances of smart technology being deployed to address the California drought include Intel’s partnership with the University of California in measuring Santa Barbara snow patterns and IBM’s partnership with AT&T’s LTE wireless network to warn municipalities about leaks in underground pipes.

In examples such as these, various information systems and smart technology structures will be involved, as well as enormous amounts of sensitive data. According to research referenced by tech blogger Andy Vitus, there were over two-hundred venture capital deals in 2015 alone, totally over $2 billion in revenue. Of those, $525 million involved water-oriented projects.

While all of these smart technology startups are bringing creative solutions to the world of agriculture, their respective devices do not share standardized protocols so any hope of networked communication between systems will involve a tremendous amount of reverse-engineering. To make the biggest positive impact on the world of agriculture, IoT needs to prioritize the implementation of open standards in its network protocols. Without these standards, every device manufacturer may promote their own proprietary protocols and systems will not be able to communicate with each other, effectively stymying the reach that these technologies may have.

No matter what direction agricultural smart technology takes, the IoT will never be a “rainmaker” in ecological states of emergency like the California drought. Still, it can do much to mitigate the severity of such dire circumstances by ensuring that the resources available are used in the most efficient way possible. If, through the power of open standards, IoT systems are enabled to share information and data resources, then their ability to influence and innovate will only increase.

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The Expanding Internet of Things Presents Big Security Challenges for Tech Industry

Posted on March 23rd, 2016

openstand, open stand, openstandards, open standards
Image: Techcrunch

OpenStand has posted one or two of our articles regarding the security challenges that are presented by the ever-expanding Internet of Things (IoT). Without question, the advantages of having a web-connected heating system or vehicle or baby monitor are attractive and obvious.  However, the reality is that the IoT creates security vulnerabilities  and hacking risks.  

At a basic level, the argument can be made that the IoT increases user vulnerability simply by increasing a household’s network footprint. If a single internet connection serves as a single point of potential exploitation by hackers, then increasing such connections exponentially will only increase the number of potentially exploitable points of access. While it’s hard to dispute such seemingly fundamental logic, the corresponding solution would be to roll back the amount of Internet-connected devices, which undermines the promise of the IoT.

Of more pressing concern is the fact that, as of yet, there is no widely-adopted security standard for IoT devices.  As such, it is not uncommon for a number of web-enabled products to wind up in consumers’ homes with insufficient security protocols in place. In previous OpenStand blog posts we discussed a few of the more-high profile examples of IoT technologies being hacked – and less spectacular examples of IoT devices being exploited are not difficult to find.

Fortunately, the need for comprehensive security standards in the world of IoT has not been ignored by the tech industry at large. Efforts have been made to remodel existing security standards (such as those under the ISO 27000 auspice of security protocols) to suit the needs of IoT devices. Furthermore, the IEEE has been working on various models of architectural frameworks that are specifically designed to address the needs of IoT products.

Though this awareness and progress is welcome news to those who follow the tech industry and care about standardized protocols, there is still much work to be done. As the IoT continues to expand the Internet’s reach at a dizzying pace, organizations such as McKinsey & Co. and the Global Semiconductor Alliance (GSA) have identified several areas of IoT security consideration that are not currently being addressed by any standards organization. It has been estimated that by next year, most IoT devices will have been developed by companies that are less than three years old. While this sort of exponential growth in the industry is exciting and promises to bring new and imaginative features to consumers, this growth also promises to outpace the development of security measures and industry standards.

All this puts the tech industry in a difficult position for safeguarding the future of the Internet. Those who are concerned about the challenges of IoT security can help address the problem by raising awareness, advocating for continued and increased development of security standards, and encouraging organizations in the tech industry to collaborate with one another to establish robust security models.

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Leading Open Internet Advocacy Group Publishes White Paper to Demystify and Promote Further Dialogue Concerning the Internet of Things

Posted on March 16th, 2016

openstand, open stand, openstandards, open standardsImage: Shutterstock, Bloomua

OpenStand readers are more than familiar with current trends and issues related to the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT).  We’ve witnessed reliable and exponential growth in the number of Internet users, especially users accessing the web via smartphones and other web-enabled mobile devices. Experts now predict that the number of internet-enabled devices will grow at an ever greater magnitude thanks to the IoT.

Though these sorts of predictions are no exact science, some industry analysts have project there will be over 100 billion devices connected to the Internet over the next decade. This sort of growth is completely unprecedented and presents some very real challenges for those seeking to prioritize cybersecurity in an age of unparalleled web activity.

The Internet Society (IS), a web standards and advocacy group, has addressed these concerns in depth in a recently published white paper entitled “The Internet of Things: An Overview – Understanding the Issues and Challenges of a More Connected World”. The intent of this paper is to inform interested parties about some of the critically important aspects of the IoT, as well as setting the stage for further sustained conversation to take place.

In addition to covering the basic information concerning the IoT (such as explaining what exactly it is), the IS’s white paper focuses on what it deems the five main challenge areas:

  • Security
  • Privacy
  • Interoperability and standards
  • Legal, regulatory, and rights
  • Emerging economies and development

Each of these areas is covered in depth and pertinent questions are identified in a bid to keep the conversation going. Perhaps the most significant issue that the paper raises is the matter of security. As we have discussed before, the IoT promises to be an area of exponential growth in Internet connectivity. The notion of millions or even billions of devices with poorly established security specifications all sending and receiving personal data should be enough to give any safety-minded user pause. It is for this reason that the IS’s white paper is so well timed. It is very important that concerned individuals and organizations educate themselves regarding the challenges and opportunities that the IoT represents, and to mobilize in the push for security standards to be designed and implemented in the IoT.

For those who are interested in the IS’s continued coverage on IoT, you can follow their blog at:

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IEEE Celebrates Landmark Anniversary of Industry-Leading Wireless Standard

Posted on March 9th, 2016

IEEE, openstand, open stand, openstandards, open internet standards

Image: Shutterstock, Pavel Ignatov

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the world’s foremost professional association for technology workers and a significant voice in matters of technological standards. IEEE recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of the publishing of IEEE 802.11™1, the de facto standard for WiFi products. The global impact of IEEE 802.11 has been enormous; wireless products ranging from video game consoles to mobile phones to smart tvs all use the standard, and new and innovative products are added to its footprint all the time.

The journey to this level of adoption did not occur overnight, certainly. In the late 1980’s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) opened up the 2.2.4-2.5 GHz radio spectrum for individual and non-licensed use. The IEEE was quick to recognize that there was a need for standardized models of wireless communication that would utilize the open spectrum in a way that would be of greatest benefit to the buyers and manufacturers of wireless technology. By June 1997, the IEEE had their first approved model of IEEE 802.11 and it was adopted widely.

Since the very first working version of 802.11, the IEEE has not stopped working to bring new and improved functionality to the standard. Additional features that are currently in development include precise indoor location, faster connection setup, much higher data rates and utilization of the 900 MHz unlicensed band. Furthermore, the IEEE has a 802.11 working group that is focusing on ways to make improvements in areas of addressing efficiency, quality of service guarantees, and special regional extensions for China and Japan to meet their regulatory requirements for short-range radio equipment.

“The many people who have worked on the IEEE 802.11 standard have forever changed our world,” said Konstantinos Karachalios, managing director, IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA). “As one of the more popular and universally known IEEE standards, IEEE 802.11 already enhances ways of life around the world; for the new generations, home will virtually be where there is good wireless Internet connectivity. Thus, IEEE 802.11’s role is exploding, also with the proliferation of application innovations such as the IoT. The high quality and broad commercial acceptance of the standard is a testament to the dedication, innovation and vision of the IEEE 802.11 working group’s members.”

Adrian Stephens, the chair of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group also had this to say: “The IEEE 802.11 standard underpins widely deployed and dependable connectivity that dramatically influences our everyday lives and will continue to do so well into the future. IEEE 802.11 continues to push the boundaries of innovation two and a half decades after its inception. Devices using the standard are so interoperable and ubiquitous that we’re continuously seeing new and creative ways wireless devices connect to the Internet.”

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