Proposed Application of DRM in Popular Image Format May Present Concerns for Photo Sharers

Posted on May 4th, 2016

Proposed Application of DRM in Popular Image Format

Image: PCWorld

Copying, cutting, pasting, cropping, filtering, modifying, and sharing digital images is easier and arguably more popular than ever before. Many popular social media platforms have image editing capabilities built right in, so there’s little wonder as to why many web users take such features for granted.

The JPEG Committee, the primary organization behind establishing the coding standards of the enormously popular JPEG image format, is considering measures that may change how we approach image modifications.

For nearly a year, the JPEG Committee has been considering different coding models that would integrate digital rights management (DRM) schemas into the JPEG format. Followers of digital rights issues may be aware that an extension for DRM already exists for JPEG 2000 which is used primarily by health care providers. The new models being considered by the JPEG Committee will be much broader in their scope. With proper DRM application, the Committee claims, the unwanted sharing of personal images might be prevented and the kind of digital theft that affects professional image repositories could be curtailed.

Though the intentions behind these proposed changes are no doubt respectable, there are those who have voiced concern about the negative impact that such far-reaching DRM measures might have. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has argued that this sort of DRM application may prevent ethical usage of images through fair use and quotation. Furthermore, there are technical worries to consider, such as fraudulent DRM claims and interoperability issues between applications. For more casual image sharers, DRM overreach could prevent things like Internet memes or Pinterest-like bulletin boards from even existing.

The EFF has gone on to propose alternative measures that might be taken to discourage improper liberties from being taken on private photographs. Instead of “locking up entire image files,” with DRM, encrypted metadata might be used to sign images and track them. Users might then be allowed give trusted sources the ability to decrypt the metadata as they wish. Regarding the issue of image theft, EFF recommends that existing methods of determent (watermarking, steganography, etc.) continue to be developed and deployed.

There is little question that the JPEG Committee presents some legitimate concerns and possible solutions to address the ongoing problem of improper image usage.  At the same time, it may be too easy for DRM to be used too aggressively and to seriously damage industry growth and user experience. Given the checkered success of DRM in the music industry, groups like EFF do well to be wary about the impact it might have when applied to the web’s most popular image format.  With proper collaboration, it is hoped a solution may be found that protects digital rights while maintaining proper access and liberties for image use.

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Open Standards Finds Unlikely Sector of Growth in the World of Cinema

Posted on April 27th, 2016

International Union of Cinemas Calls for Open Standards in the Cinema Industry
Image: Shutterstock

Standards impact every industry and every sector. Posts on the OpenStand blog are dedicated to sharing case studies, stories and policies that influence development standards across sectors.  We’ve highlighted open standards for all sorts of technologies including mobile apps, car starters, baby monitors, and even interplanetary communication!  Another non-traditional area of development that’s been garnering more attention lately comes from the entertainment industry.

The International Union of Cinemas (UNIC) is a European trade association that boasts memberships in 36 countries. UNIC has participated in several keynote lectures in industry conferences discussing the swiftly changing technology landscape in cinema. Many UNIC members are significantly invested in an array of new and upcoming technologies that bring movie-going experiences to life.

Tracking all the latest innovations is an expensive and not always efficient proposition. Outside of the basic complications that sometimes frustrate the the acquisition and installation processes of new technology, many issues arise related to technical compatibility.  This threatens innovation in Cinema and can result in silo-driven innovation that fails to provide a global benefit.  Today, there are more sound and image data formats than ever before.  Cinema operators naturally would like to be able to show movies in the best possible quality, but keeping up with the countless players, projection systems, and support services can prove to be simply unfeasible.  Tech Blog Digital Cinema Today has published a list of the common problems impacting cinema innovation today:

  1.  Some major releases and accompanying trailers are not mixed in immersive sound, despite the technology being available in many cinemas around the world;
  1. Some films are only available in one specific Premium Large Format. Operators who have not invested in that specific format are then required to screen the film in a classic, smaller format on their otherwise large screens;
  1. Certain releases are only made available during the opening week in one specific image or sound format, limiting their release to cinemas equipped for those formats only;
  1. Some films are only made available in one specific non-standardized aspect ratio, therefore encouraging exhibitors to show a cropped film to their audience unless they can create a new macro in time.

The problems present in the entertainment industry are comparable with issues faced in other industries. The best path forward for cinema operators is open collaboration and cooperation. By working together to cultivate an environment in which technical innovation can be standardized and streamlined, cinema operators can ensure a more consistent, immersive theater experience for patrons. UNIC has been a vociferous advocate for moving the industry away from siloed, proprietary technology and into a more unified, collaborative, standardized development model.  This, UNIC maintains, would allow even small cinema operators to avail themselves of the greatest and most innovative media delivery systems.  The UNIC goal is to help pave the way to ensure that all films large and small — will be shown in the most ideal format.  As AR/VR and immersive programming enter the scene, this capability would seem to be growing in its importance.  As the industry, developers, cinemas and screeners collaborate to develop open technology standards for cinema, a more level playing field will be created, increasing competition, and more immersive, pleasing and unified movie-going experience will delight customers.

To learn more about Open Standards, which are based on the principles that contributed to the development of the Internet, please check out the OpenStand principles! If you enjoyed this post, please subscribe to the OpenStand blog!

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ISOC Promotes Collaborative Approach to Network Security at Mobile 360 Cape Town

Posted on April 13th, 2016

Leading Internet Advocacy Group Promotes Collaborative Approach to Network Security at Tech Conference in Cape Town

Image: Internet Society

Last October, the Internet Society (IS), a leading open standards advocacy group for Internet technologies (and OpenStand partner), presented its vision for a collaborative model of Internet security standards at Mobile 360, a telecommunications technology conference. The conference, held in Cape Town, South Africa, attracted a broad array of industry players; from buyers to users, to developers, to policy shapers, groups from both the private and governmental sectors gathered to discuss security standards in Internet-based telecommunication.

Security was the leading topic of the Mobile 360 conference, and ISOC’s primary contribution was to present a new model for collaborative security, based upon the simple premise that comprehensive Internet security is best created by people working together. The ISOC team made an eloquent pass at drawing out a collaborative utility that represents and how, at its core, the Internet is the ultimate venue for collaboration.

Still, ISOC went on to say, the very quality that makes the Internet an unparalleled tool for cooperation also makes it vulnerable to misuse. Because of its open and global nature, cyber miscreants can reach across borders and operate with relative freedom from reprisal as they ply their trade from anywhere in the world. Until quite recently, the predominant network security strategy has been to guard against specific internal and external threats. While this is obviously superior to having no security approach at all, the strategy has shown itself to be cumbersome and cost ineffective.

In response to the challenges of conventional security practices, there is a growing awareness in the tech industry that a reimagining of threat prevention may be necessary. Models that protect opportunities for economic and social prosperity should be prioritized over models wholly focused on preventing perceived harm.  The ISOC collaborative security approach starts from this premise and builds out on these five key elements, which are consistent with the OpenStand principles:

  • Fostering confidence and protecting opportunities: The objective of security is to foster confidence in the Internet.
  • Collective Responsibility: Internet participants share a responsibility towards the system as a whole.
  • Fundamental Properties and Values: Security solutions should be compatible with fundamental human rights and preserve the fundamental properties of the Internet, thus the Internet Invariants.
  • Evolution and Consensus: Effective security relies on agile evolutionary steps based on the expertise of a broad set of stakeholders.
  • Think Globally, act Locally: It is through voluntary bottom-up self-organization that the most impactful solutions are likely to be reached.
  • Network operators are major stakeholders that can contribute to the collaborative security.

Fortunately, for security managers interested in building more collaborative security models, there is already a published framework that identifies best practices in network operations. Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security (MANRS) defines four concrete actions that network operators should implement, including:

  • Prevention of propagation of incorrect routing information.
  • Prevent traffic with spoofed source IP addresses.
  • Facilitate global operational communication and coordination between network operators.
  • Facilitate validation of routing information on a global scale.
  • The Internet Society urges African network operators to subscribe to MANRS and contribute to making Internet routing more secure for the benefit of all.

Check out the ISOC Collaborative Security Approach here and be sure to leave your questions, comments and thoughts!

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Open Standards Are Key in Bringing the Internet of Things to the World of Agriculture

Posted on April 6th, 2016

openstand, openstandards, IoTImage: Techcrunch

One thing that many devices on the Internet of Things (IoT) have in common is that they do not have conventional user interfaces such as you’d expect to find on a personal computer or smartphone. Given the diverse form and function represented by IoT devices, interoperability and security have presented themselves as points of concern. For owners of IoT devices like the Apple TV or Amazon Echo, the frustration that comes with getting these devices to cooperate is no doubt a familiar annoyance. As more and more innovative and creative IoT applications are conceived, developed, and rushed to production, the dissonance and frustration of uncooperative devices threatens to worsen.

When considering the implications of IoT technology being implemented on such large scales as agricultural complexes, municipal utilities, and power plants, it is easy to see how the stakes can get quite high. For instance, in response to the agricultural and ecological state of emergency caused by the ongoing California drought, various smart technology developers have partnered with such recognizable companies as John Deere. By equipping John Deere tractors with networked sensors, analysts could calculate which areas would be optimal for planting so that farmers could plan accordingly. Other instances of smart technology being deployed to address the California drought include Intel’s partnership with the University of California in measuring Santa Barbara snow patterns and IBM’s partnership with AT&T’s LTE wireless network to warn municipalities about leaks in underground pipes.

In examples such as these, various information systems and smart technology structures will be involved, as well as enormous amounts of sensitive data. According to research referenced by tech blogger Andy Vitus, there were over two-hundred venture capital deals in 2015 alone, totally over $2 billion in revenue. Of those, $525 million involved water-oriented projects.

While all of these smart technology startups are bringing creative solutions to the world of agriculture, their respective devices do not share standardized protocols so any hope of networked communication between systems will involve a tremendous amount of reverse-engineering. To make the biggest positive impact on the world of agriculture, IoT needs to prioritize the implementation of open standards in its network protocols. Without these standards, every device manufacturer may promote their own proprietary protocols and systems will not be able to communicate with each other, effectively stymying the reach that these technologies may have.

No matter what direction agricultural smart technology takes, the IoT will never be a “rainmaker” in ecological states of emergency like the California drought. Still, it can do much to mitigate the severity of such dire circumstances by ensuring that the resources available are used in the most efficient way possible. If, through the power of open standards, IoT systems are enabled to share information and data resources, then their ability to influence and innovate will only increase.

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The Expanding Internet of Things Presents Big Security Challenges for Tech Industry

Posted on March 23rd, 2016

openstand, open stand, openstandards, open standards
Image: Techcrunch

OpenStand has posted one or two of our articles regarding the security challenges that are presented by the ever-expanding Internet of Things (IoT). Without question, the advantages of having a web-connected heating system or vehicle or baby monitor are attractive and obvious.  However, the reality is that the IoT creates security vulnerabilities  and hacking risks.  

At a basic level, the argument can be made that the IoT increases user vulnerability simply by increasing a household’s network footprint. If a single internet connection serves as a single point of potential exploitation by hackers, then increasing such connections exponentially will only increase the number of potentially exploitable points of access. While it’s hard to dispute such seemingly fundamental logic, the corresponding solution would be to roll back the amount of Internet-connected devices, which undermines the promise of the IoT.

Of more pressing concern is the fact that, as of yet, there is no widely-adopted security standard for IoT devices.  As such, it is not uncommon for a number of web-enabled products to wind up in consumers’ homes with insufficient security protocols in place. In previous OpenStand blog posts we discussed a few of the more-high profile examples of IoT technologies being hacked – and less spectacular examples of IoT devices being exploited are not difficult to find.

Fortunately, the need for comprehensive security standards in the world of IoT has not been ignored by the tech industry at large. Efforts have been made to remodel existing security standards (such as those under the ISO 27000 auspice of security protocols) to suit the needs of IoT devices. Furthermore, the IEEE has been working on various models of architectural frameworks that are specifically designed to address the needs of IoT products.

Though this awareness and progress is welcome news to those who follow the tech industry and care about standardized protocols, there is still much work to be done. As the IoT continues to expand the Internet’s reach at a dizzying pace, organizations such as McKinsey & Co. and the Global Semiconductor Alliance (GSA) have identified several areas of IoT security consideration that are not currently being addressed by any standards organization. It has been estimated that by next year, most IoT devices will have been developed by companies that are less than three years old. While this sort of exponential growth in the industry is exciting and promises to bring new and imaginative features to consumers, this growth also promises to outpace the development of security measures and industry standards.

All this puts the tech industry in a difficult position for safeguarding the future of the Internet. Those who are concerned about the challenges of IoT security can help address the problem by raising awareness, advocating for continued and increased development of security standards, and encouraging organizations in the tech industry to collaborate with one another to establish robust security models.

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Leading Open Internet Advocacy Group Publishes White Paper to Demystify and Promote Further Dialogue Concerning the Internet of Things

Posted on March 16th, 2016

openstand, open stand, openstandards, open standardsImage: Shutterstock, Bloomua

OpenStand readers are more than familiar with current trends and issues related to the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT).  We’ve witnessed reliable and exponential growth in the number of Internet users, especially users accessing the web via smartphones and other web-enabled mobile devices. Experts now predict that the number of internet-enabled devices will grow at an ever greater magnitude thanks to the IoT.

Though these sorts of predictions are no exact science, some industry analysts have project there will be over 100 billion devices connected to the Internet over the next decade. This sort of growth is completely unprecedented and presents some very real challenges for those seeking to prioritize cybersecurity in an age of unparalleled web activity.

The Internet Society (IS), a web standards and advocacy group, has addressed these concerns in depth in a recently published white paper entitled “The Internet of Things: An Overview – Understanding the Issues and Challenges of a More Connected World”. The intent of this paper is to inform interested parties about some of the critically important aspects of the IoT, as well as setting the stage for further sustained conversation to take place.

In addition to covering the basic information concerning the IoT (such as explaining what exactly it is), the IS’s white paper focuses on what it deems the five main challenge areas:

  • Security
  • Privacy
  • Interoperability and standards
  • Legal, regulatory, and rights
  • Emerging economies and development

Each of these areas is covered in depth and pertinent questions are identified in a bid to keep the conversation going. Perhaps the most significant issue that the paper raises is the matter of security. As we have discussed before, the IoT promises to be an area of exponential growth in Internet connectivity. The notion of millions or even billions of devices with poorly established security specifications all sending and receiving personal data should be enough to give any safety-minded user pause. It is for this reason that the IS’s white paper is so well timed. It is very important that concerned individuals and organizations educate themselves regarding the challenges and opportunities that the IoT represents, and to mobilize in the push for security standards to be designed and implemented in the IoT.

For those who are interested in the IS’s continued coverage on IoT, you can follow their blog at: www.internetsociety.org/iot

For all other matters involving technological standards and an open Internet, you can follow us right here at OpenStand!

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IEEE Celebrates Landmark Anniversary of Industry-Leading Wireless Standard

Posted on March 9th, 2016

IEEE, openstand, open stand, openstandards, open internet standards

Image: Shutterstock, Pavel Ignatov

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the world’s foremost professional association for technology workers and a significant voice in matters of technological standards. IEEE recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of the publishing of IEEE 802.11™1, the de facto standard for WiFi products. The global impact of IEEE 802.11 has been enormous; wireless products ranging from video game consoles to mobile phones to smart tvs all use the standard, and new and innovative products are added to its footprint all the time.

The journey to this level of adoption did not occur overnight, certainly. In the late 1980’s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) opened up the 2.2.4-2.5 GHz radio spectrum for individual and non-licensed use. The IEEE was quick to recognize that there was a need for standardized models of wireless communication that would utilize the open spectrum in a way that would be of greatest benefit to the buyers and manufacturers of wireless technology. By June 1997, the IEEE had their first approved model of IEEE 802.11 and it was adopted widely.

Since the very first working version of 802.11, the IEEE has not stopped working to bring new and improved functionality to the standard. Additional features that are currently in development include precise indoor location, faster connection setup, much higher data rates and utilization of the 900 MHz unlicensed band. Furthermore, the IEEE has a 802.11 working group that is focusing on ways to make improvements in areas of addressing efficiency, quality of service guarantees, and special regional extensions for China and Japan to meet their regulatory requirements for short-range radio equipment.

“The many people who have worked on the IEEE 802.11 standard have forever changed our world,” said Konstantinos Karachalios, managing director, IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA). “As one of the more popular and universally known IEEE standards, IEEE 802.11 already enhances ways of life around the world; for the new generations, home will virtually be where there is good wireless Internet connectivity. Thus, IEEE 802.11’s role is exploding, also with the proliferation of application innovations such as the IoT. The high quality and broad commercial acceptance of the standard is a testament to the dedication, innovation and vision of the IEEE 802.11 working group’s members.”

Adrian Stephens, the chair of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group also had this to say: “The IEEE 802.11 standard underpins widely deployed and dependable connectivity that dramatically influences our everyday lives and will continue to do so well into the future. IEEE 802.11 continues to push the boundaries of innovation two and a half decades after its inception. Devices using the standard are so interoperable and ubiquitous that we’re continuously seeing new and creative ways wireless devices connect to the Internet.”

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IETF Work Group Seeks to Improve User Experience and Interoperability in Streaming Video by Establishing High-Quality Codec Standard

Posted on March 3rd, 2016

03032016_IETF Work Group Seeks to Improve User Experience and Interoperability in Streaming Video by Establishing High-Quality Codec Standard
Image: Internet Society

Interoperability issues are a common annoyance for individuals attempting to stream video on the web. Users that may login to Netflix, Hulu or Amazon to watch a movie on the web may be stopped with a warning that they don’t have the proper software to proceed. Users are often forced to download proprietary plug-ins to view movies that are requested, and streaming services may not operate equally well on different browsers or platforms.

NETVC, a working group associated with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), is looking to change all that by designing a standardized, high-quality, royalty-free video codec that can be used on multiple platforms including, but not limited to, open-source software. This is not the IETF’s first run at establishing a standardized media codec. In 2012, the Opus audio codec was published by an IETF working group and it has seen widespread adoption across the web. NETVC believes that it can do for video what Opus did for audio.

Two tech industry giants, Cisco and Mozilla, have contributed from their codec codebases to aid NETVC in their effort to craft a high-quality standardized video codec. The fact that these companies have “opened” these portions of their codebases for the NETVC project means that any interested party can review the code, modify it, test it, and contribute to the end result.

While there is still significant work to be done in the project, NETVC’s productivity has been greatly boosted by leveraging the codebases of Cisco and Mozilla (code named “Thor” and “Daala,” respectively) against each other and recording which seems to function better under different conditions. While the project is still in its early stages, NETVC has reported promising results from their “pair and compare” approach to research.

If development of the codec continues at such a promising pace, NETVC could serve as a splendid case study for champions for open standards. To learn more about OpenStandards, please check out the OpenStand principles. You can become an OpenStand advocate by

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Internet-Enabled Features in Cars Present Need for Unified Standards

Posted on February 24th, 2016

 

IoT connected vehicles are designed to make our lives easier—but is the security risk worth the reward?
Image: Shutterstock, PeterPhoto123

In previous OpenStand posts, we have discussed the proliferation of Internet-connectivity into every aspect of our daily lives as we approach a new “Internet of Things” (IoT) era. As we fill our homes with more and more networked devices, that are capable of relaying information to anywhere in the world in an instant, the importance of cyber-security becomes more and more apparent. If the need for consumer vigilance was not already high enough, the IoT has begun to spill over, from work and home to new territory—our commute—and our cars.

Internet connectivity and the ability to connect our mobile devices to the dashboard has delivered many useful features that car owners find very helpful. From specially curated music playlists to turn-by-turn navigation. However, as useful as these new capabilities may be, they can also create security vulnerabilities.

The exploitation of such vulnerabilities made headlines last July when two cybersecurity researchers found that they were able to remotely attack a Jeep Cherokee that was equipped with the proprietary Uconnect system. The Uconnect system, which had been equipped in as many as 471,000 Chrysler-FIAT automobiles by the time of this attack, connects to the Sprint cellular network to bring enable certain many different features in the car, including remote ignition.

The researchers discovered that by obtaining precise location and vehicle identification information, they could attack the car’s critical systems via its IP address, including turning off its brakes, affecting steering and transmission controls, activating windshield wipers, and taking control of its vehicle information and entertainment systems. They could also take control of the steering of the vehicle in reverse.

Though it may sound like a plot device in a movie, Fiat-Chrysler responded to the researchers discoveries with utmost seriousness and quickly deployed a security patch. While their response was timely, a serious problem remains. There is guarantee that all vehicle operators affected have applied the patch, especially since it must first be downloaded to a USB drive and then installed manually, or initiated in a dealership.

While the Uconnect vulnerability may be the most dramatic example of the dangers of poorly-secured IoT capabilities in vehicles, it is far from the only example. Other researchers have demonstrated that sending precisely coded text messages to a USB dongle plugged into the dashboard of a 2013 Corvette, they were able to engage the vehicle’s windshield wipers and even disable its brakes. Wired reported last year that these sorts of dongles represent a myriad of security issues since they are configured to accept commands via text message.

To add to consumer consternation, it does not appear that any standardized security protocols for IoT devices will have significant industry impact in the immediate future. Industry experts have suggested that the sort of cooperation required to author such standards will likely not manifest until at least 2017.

That is not to say that there is no interest in making cyber security standards a priority. Already there are many alliances and consortiums that have crafted competing standards concepts and models. Such organizations include the Industrial Internet Consortium, the AllSeen Alliance, the Open Interconnect Consortium, the Object Management Group®, Thread, and HomeKit.

In the meantime, consumers would do well to research their purchases carefully. As we work together to promote open standards for security, we make the web (and the road) a safer place.

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Baby Monitors May Present Security Risk for Home Networks

Posted on February 17th, 2016


Baby monitors are designed with safety in mind — but how safe are they?

Image: Shutterstock, Piotr Adamowicz
Ever since their invention in 1937, baby monitors have afforded the parents of small children the ability to keep tabs on their child’s safety without physically being in the same room. While they are designed with safety in mind, new research has revealed that some modern, sophisticated baby monitors come with shockingly unwelcome security vulnerabilities. According to New York-based cyber-security company Rapid7, several models of WiFi-equipped baby monitors that stream videos to web-based APIs are vulnerable to hacking attacks.To make things worse, Cory Doctorow recently reported on Boing Boing that (as if it wasn’t bad enough that hackers have been compromising wireless baby monitors since 2013) there’s now a search engine called Shodan that will allow anyone to search for vulnerable baby monitors and other devices.  

Doctorow, Rapid7 and other network security experts have long cautioned against the general lack of security that these IoT gadgets tend to have. Finding their way from the lab to the factory to the shelf and eventually, into people’s homes, these products are put to use without standardized security measures in place, and it’s only getting worse.

While the concerns that arise from the possibility of a hacker taking control of the camera in a baby monitor are scary enough — there may be additional worries to consider. Since WiFi-equipped baby monitors actually have small computers inside that talk to the Internet, hackers could use it to observe activity on your home network and thereby acquire other sensitive information.  

The picture for the future of smart homes is also a concern. Doctorow points out that the quantity of insecure devices make the Internet less secure for everyone.  In the future we may see malware on smart home webcams, DDoS attacks on vulnerable webcams, police cams and more. This makes the serious vulnerability of IoT enable devices a serious privacy and security issue.

Mark Stanislav, a consultant and researcher for Rapid7,claims that manufacturers are starting to realize that security standards are earnestly needed for Internet-connected devices, but the change may not come as soon as consumers might wish. “We’re seeing movement in the right direction,” he said.

While standards are created, Stanislav asserts the best thing for consumers to do is keep their devices up-to-date with the manufacturer’s software. Furthermore, all default passwords should be changed and it might be wise to unplug the device when not in use to minimize network exposure. Even with these precautions, there is still much work to be done in the industry for IoT devices to become as secure as they can be. As a consumer, the best defense is to be informed.

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